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Vraagtekens bij de huidige inslagtheorie?

Geplaatst op 02-01-2010 om 18u01 door Bert Carrein - 2324 keer gelezen
Nieuws

Dood en verderf trad op zo’n 12.900 jaar geleden in Noord-Amerika. Mammoeten stierven uit en de Clovis cultuur vond haar ondergang. Klimaatverandering door de inslag van een hemellichaam werd tot voor kort gezien als grote oorzaak. Heronderzoek brengt deze theorie echter aan het wankelen. Punt van twijfel zijn microscopische deeltjes.

Wie kent niet de films Armageddon (1998) en Deep Impact (1998) waarin de aarde bedreigd wordt door een aanstormend hemellichaam. Ook vandaag de dag kennen we zo af en toe nog kleine inslagen. In het verleden was het niet anders: diverse kraters zijn er getuige van. Volgens eerder onderzoek sloegen er een of meerdere hemellichamen in zo’n 12.900 jaar geleden in Noord-Amerika. Hernieuwd onderzoek veegt de bewijzen van dit onderzoek deels van tafel: er was waarschijnlijk geen inslag. Surovell en collega’s meldden dit in PNAS.

astronomie sterrenkunde ruimtevaart nieuws
Het verloop van de temperatuur op aarde op basis van een ijskern genomen op Groenland.

De periode waarin dit alles plaats vond, was het begin van het Jonge Dryas, een periode aan het einde van de laatste ijstijd. In het begin van deze periode ging de Clovis cultuur teloor. Dit was een cultuur van jagende mensen die het waarschijnlijk voorzien hadden op groot wild zoals mammoeten. Ook de wolharige mammoeten zelf, mastodont en de sabeltandtijger legden het loodje. Daarnaast daalde de temperatuur scherp. Genoeg ellende dus in deze periode. In 2007 kwamen onderzoekers met een theorie die eigenlijk alles verklaarde.

Een hemellichaam (een komeet of een asteroïde) kwam in Noord-Amerika terecht waardoor de plaatselijke ijskap gedeeltelijk smolt. Bovendien daalde ook de temperatuur en stierven vele grote dieren uit. Dit naar aanleiding van onderzoek aan microscopische deeltjes zoals kleine diamantjes en concentraties van het element iridium. Dit element komt in hoge concentraties voor in hemellichamen, maar veel minder in de aardkorst en –mantel. In 2009 kwam er nog meer aanwijzingen van een eilandje bij Los Angelos. Helaas is er (nog) geen inslagkrater gevonden van deze ouderdom.

Als de meteoriettheorie klopt, moeten dezelfde resultaten uit een heronderzoek rollen. Dat dachten ook onderzoekers Surovell en collega’s. Niets bleek minder waar te zijn. De onderzoekers onderzochten twee van de locaties die ook al in 2007 waren onderzocht. Bovendien werden er nog eens vijf andere sites aan toegevoegd, alle in Noord-Amerika. De onderzoekers vonden op één uitzondering na geen verhoogde concentratie van microsferulen (kleine glasbolletjes) en magnetische mineralen, terwijl dit juist een aanwijzing is voor een inslag. Dit lijkt dus compleet tegengesteld van het onderzoek in 2007.

Is dit dan einde verhaal voor het de inslagtheorie? Nee, niet helemaal. Surovell en collega’s deden geen onderzoek naar andere kenmerken die eerdere onderzoeken wel meenamen. Voorbeelden zijn piepkleine diamantjes, koolstofbolletjes, iridiumconcentraties en helium. Pas als ook verder onderzoek aantoont dat deze toch veel minder voorkomen dan werd gesteld in 2007 kan de inslagtheorie verworpen worden. Meer werk aan de winkel voor wetenschappers dus, want wetenschap is nooit af.

Bron: The Guidestar: http://www.astro-event-group.be (Adiël Klompmaker)

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