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Supernova slingert brokstukken weg aan enorme snelheden

Geplaatst op 17-02-2010 om 11u03 door Bert Carrein - 1388 keer gelezen
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Een internationaal team van astronomen van onder andere JIVE en ASTRON in Dwingeloo hebben voor het eerst zogenoemde relativistische snelheden in een supernova-explosie vastgelegd. Met deze ontdekking bewijzen zij dat in dit type explosies de brokstukken worden weggeslingerd met een snelheid vergelijkbaar met die van het licht. Hiermee lijkt er een verband te zijn aangetoond met gammaflitsen, heftige uitbarstingen van hoogenergetische gammastraling, waarvan de energie-uitstoot zelfs honderden malen meer is dan die van een supernova-uitbarsting. Het team, onder aanvoering van JIVE wetenschapper Zsolt Paragi, presenteert deze vondst op 28 januari in het tijdschrift Nature.

De radiogolven die de astronomen hebben gemeten, komen van de supernova met de naam SN 2007gr. Deze supernova, van het type IC waarbij de allerzwaarste sterren aan hun einde komen, werd in 2007 ontdekt met de "Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope in Californië. Ontploffingen van een supernova vinden meestal plaats in het verre heelal en de radiogolven die ze uitzenden, doven vrij snel. JIVE gebruikt een techniek, genoemd VLBI, waarmee deze radiogolven toch in kaart kunnen worden gebracht. Met deze techniek werken telescopen uit de hele wereld als één instrument met elkaar samen. Hierdoor konden de astronomen de details van de ontploffing onderzoeken.

Met de allernieuwste techniek kunnen de radiotelescopen in heel Europa nu zelfs direct hun gegevens naar Dwingeloo sturen over speciale breedband verbindingen. Zo kon het internationale team bovendien snel reageren op deze onverwachte explosie. Samen met latere waarnemingen is vervolgens de snelheid van de uitdijende gaswolk bepaald. Voor het eerst werd hierbij direct aangetoond dat in een dergelijke explosie snelheden te meten zijn die vergelijkbaar zijn met de snelheid van het licht.

Paragi (JIVE): "Er wordt al een tijd gedacht dat dit type supernova misschien wel relativistische jets‚ voortbrengt. Onze waarnemingen lijken dit de bevestigen en leveren nieuwe aanwijzingen dat dit soort exploderende sterren wellicht verwant zijn aan de nog heftigere gammaflitsen.

De Westerbork telescoop van ASTRON leverde een belangrijke bijdrage aan dit nieuwe resultaat. Niet alleen was het één van de gevoeligste elementen in het netwerk van radiotelescopen, maar het leverde bovendien belangrijke metingen van de totale helderheid van de supernova.

"Het is niet altijd makkelijk om snel een waarneming met meerdere radiotelescopen te organiseren, vooral als het om de grootste en gevoeligste telescopen ter wereld gaat, merkt JIVE directeur Huib Jan van Langevelde op. "Met de introductie van deze e-VLBI techniek, kun je direct met de resultaten aan de slag. Zo werken de telescopen in Europa en zelfs daarbuiten perfect samen.

Bron: The Guidestar: http://www.astro-event-group.be

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