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Wat is er mis met de Zon?

Geplaatst op 08-04-2010 om 14u53 door Bert Carrein - 4801 keer gelezen
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Hoewel de zon een ziedende bol van waterstofgas is, vinden aan haar oppervlak ook heel langzame bewegingen plaats. De traagste is de meridionale stroming, waarbij overal op de zon plasma vanaf het gebied van de evenaar naar de beide polen stroomt. Daar daalt dit hete gas, om via het inwendige van de zon weer naar de evenaar te bewegen. Nauwkeurige metingen aan deze stroming laten zien dat hij het snelst is als de zon het minst actief is en het traagst als de zon het meest actief is.

De meridionale stroming beweegt met nog geen 20 meter per seconde, meer dan een factor honderd langzamer dan bijvoorbeeld de hete bellen die uit het inwendige naar het oppervlak komen. Toch speelt deze stroming een sleutelrol in de activiteitscyclus van de zon. Het stromende en elektrisch geladen plasma gaat vergezeld van sterke magnetische velden. Die veranderen de polariteit van de magnetische polen en laten deze na gemiddeld elf jaar zelfs geheel omklappen. Tijdens deze cyclus veranderen ook de aantallen vlekken en erupties op de zon en de totale hoeveelheid zonnestraling.

De Amerikaanse astronomen David Hathaway en Lisa Rightmire maten de snelheid van de meridionale stroming tussen 1996 en 2009, tijdens de 23ste zonnevlekken-cyclus. Zij volgden de beweging van kleine magnetische gebiedjes, zoals waargenomen door de zonne-satelliet SOHO. Zo bleek dat de meridionale stroming op beide halfronden op de 75ste breedte-graad nog steeds naar de polen is gericht en zich dus veel verder uitstrekt dan tot nu toe werd gedacht. De maximale snelheid van de stroming is op het noordelijk halfrond 10 m/s en op het zuidelijk 12 m/s.

Verder vonden de astronomen dat de gemiddelde snelheid van de meridionale stroming het grootst was tijdens het zonnevlekken-minimum van 1996-1997 en het kleinst tijdens het vlekkenmaximum van 2001-2002. Daarna nam de snelheid weer toe tot 2005, om sindsdien vrijwel constant te blijven. Deze lange periode van relatief hoge snelheid hangt misschien samen met de uitzonderlijk lange duur van het laatste zonnevlekken-minimum. Dat begon in 2007 en lijkt ook nu nog niet echt voorbij te zijn. Het is het langste vlekkenminimum van de afgelopen eeuw.

Bron: The Guidestar: http://www.astro-event-group.be

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