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Exoplaneet onder de loep

Geplaatst op 24-02-2009 om 21u36 door Bert Carrein - 1800 keer gelezen
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Het is astronomen gelukt om met een telescoop vanaf de aarde warmtestraling van twee verschillende exoplaneten waar te nemen. De resultaten worden deze week gepubliceerd in Astronomy & Astrophysics door twee onafhankelijke onderzoeksgroepen, waarvan één van de Universiteit Leiden. De gemeten straling duidt er op dat op de Leidse planeet een temperatuur heerst van meer dan 1700 graden Celsius.

Het team van de Sterrenwacht Leiden, bestaande uit Ernst de Mooij en Ignas Snellen, heeft met behulp van de William Herschel Telescope op het Canarische Eiland La Palma voor het eerst vanaf de aarde een zogenoemde secundaire eclips waargenomen van de planeet die draait rond de ster TrES-3. TrES-3 staat op 800 lichtjaar afstand van de aarde in het sterrenbeeld Hercules.

De planeet schuift eens in de 31 uur precies voor zijn moederster langs en verduistert daarbij een klein beetje van het sterlicht. De Leidse astronomen hebben de secundaire eclips gemeten, het moment dat de planeet achter de ster langsschuift, waarbij het planeetlicht wordt verduisterd. Dit licht komt van de warme gloed van de planeet. De planeet is zo warm omdat hij heel dicht bij de ster staat, 40 keer dichter bij zijn ster dan dat de aarde bij de zon staat.

Ernst de Mooij, die het onderzoek geleid heeft, is erg blij met het behaalde resultaat: "Voorheen zijn er met de Spitzer-satelliet van NASA al waarnemingen verricht aan enkele exoplaneten, maar allemaal op lange golflengtes, waar de straling van de planeet minder interessant is". Ignas Snellen vervolgt: "Onze nieuwe waarnemingen openen een heel nieuw stuk spectrum, niet waarneembaar met de Spitzer-telescoop. Deze geven inzicht in de opbouw van de planeetatmosfeer. De waarnemingen duiden op de aanwezigheid van een thermische inversielaag, waarbij de bovenste lagen van de atmosfeer warmer zijn dan die daaronder, een proces dat ook vaak in de dampkring van de aarde voorkomt.

De tweede studie is uitgevoerd door David Sing van het Observatoire de Paris, en Mercedes Lopez-Moralez van het Carnegie Institution of Washington. Zij bestudeerden exoplaneet OGLE-TR-56b. Deze waarneming-en zijn op nog kortere golflengten gedaan en duiden op een nog hetere planeet dan TrES-3b.

Bron: The Guidestar: http://www.astro-event-group.be

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